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Black Sea

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The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" itself is generally accepted to be a rendering of Iranian *axšaina- (“dark colored”), cf. Avestan axšaēna- (“dark colored”), Old Persian axšaina- (color of turquoise), Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn ("blue"), and New Persian xašīn ("blue"), as well as Ossetic œxsīn (“dark gray"). The ancient Greeks subsequently adopted the name, reportedly in all likelihood those who lived to the north of the Black Sea, and altered it into á-xe(i)nos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar (c.  475 BC). The name, considered to be "ominous", was then later changed into the euphemism "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, which was also for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the commonly used designation in Greek for the sea. In contexts related to mythology, the older form "Póntos Áxeinos" remained favored.


The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: [5]“Best Turkish restaurant I have ever visited. Friendly staff, food comes out promptly, and great dishes at a reasonable price. Love the #23!.”


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